Independent Learning: Three Top Tips

Independent Learning

Why is independent learning so important?

Top students often go beyond what they’ve been asked to do when it comes to producing extended pieces of work, especially if given the chance to conduct research. It’s a virtuous circle, helping students become top students and then because they are top students they continue to learn independently as that is now their new ‘normal’ expectation. Depth and frequency of independent learning typically lead to better results in formal assessments. So the question is, how do we get the rest of the students to conduct independent learning?

Below are three handy tips you can use to encourage students to engage in independent learning.

Checklist

1. Guide your students

Most students don’t use independent learning to complement the required tasks they are given. Sometimes they just can’t be bothered. However, many students don’t bother because they haven’t the foggiest idea where to start. One thing you can do for them is to provide a simple and unintimidating list of sources they can use for specific topics. Break it down to page numbers and even paragraphs if need be, just to get them started. You could give the students this menu of options at the beginning of each topic, each term, or as I’ve done, at the beginning of the year to glue onto the inside cover of their folders. I give a copy of a Wider Reading List to my A Level students at the beginning of their final year. They should aim to use at least one of the sources in addition to the textbooks and other materials they receive in class when they submit an essay. I also encourage them to add a source to the list, to demonstrate even greater independence. The list offers guidance to those who don’t know where to go for information, but allows them to be independent learners too.

Independent Learning - Wider Reading List
Wider Reading List

Choice is important too. If the students feel as though they can pick whichever source they like, they will feel a greater sense of ownership over their learning. This is a well-documented way to boost engagement. Not only that, but once students are offered a choice, they are able to consider a range of alternatives before finally deciding upon a source to use. Their skills of source-selection and evaluation become more refined, allowing them to be even more independent in the future.

2. Choose your sources carefully

If independent learning is not a common feature of your class, then ease yourself into it. Don’t pick a stack of weighty titles from the bookshelf, or the top ten ranked pages on Google – the students won’t thank you for it and will most likely just not read it.

Instead, choose two or three easy-to-access resources and not necessarily written ones either – YouTube is brilliant, so are Vimeo and Slideshare. Students who have conducted independent learning before are much more likely to do it again, compared with students who have never done it before. Remove the barrier to starting independent learning by making it less demanding first round.

3. Set your expectations and monitor them

Students must know that independent learning is not an optional extra, but a required part of the course. Those of you operating a Flipped Learning model will understand how homework can be used to gain huge advantages. Here, the student gets to choose what, when and how they use the independent learning material. They choose how much advantage they want to take and in what direction.

How do you know they’ve done it?

At the bottom of the options menu, create a box where students can write down each time they’ve used one of the sources. You could even give a termly reward for those who have made the best use of the menu, or for those who have shown the most progress. Make it meaningful to students and they will adopt it.

 

I would love to know how you promote independent learning in your classes. Send me a message!

Also, if you want to see an example of a menu that I’ve used then leave your email address below and I’ll send you a free copy.

Enjoy!

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Future Leaders – How to Prepare Them

Leadership

Why do I need to know the difference between Plato and Aristotle? I’m not going to be a philosopher!”

Thus began my Friday afternoon a few months ago. A group of A Level students was finalising some revision for their final exam on Philosophy of Religion. They had been learning the content for months by this point and had no problem with the main points. However, now that the exams were almost upon them, the students were beginning to feel frustrated, scared and annoyed by the fact that they hadn’t quite mastered everything quite yet. Time was running out. Fear and frustration are commonplace amongst students and it often leads them to ask why they are studying the subject in the first place. I replied to them that I was teaching future leaders the skills they would need to change the world. Only I’ve thought more about it since then and there’s an issue: we don’t know what the future will look like, so how can we possibly prepare for it?

How do we prepare students to work in future industries?

When students reach a certain point, they choose a range of subjects to continue learning. This is either because they enjoy them, or because they see those subjects as valuable in helping them get a job in the future. But how do we guide our students to make good choices for the future when we haven’t a clue about industries that don’t exist yet? Not only that, but what if students pick subjects related to one industry, but then after a few years of employment they want to move out of that industry? Many people have been left high and dry due to a lack of alternative career paths related to their education and skills. We need to move away from that.

Below I’ve given the five areas that we teachers should focus on, in combination with high-quality subject content, so that our students are prepared for a variety of opportunities that will come their way in the future:

  1. Critical thinking skills
  2. Problem-solving skills
  3. Teamwork
  4. Project management
  5. Self-directed learning

Critical Thinking Mind

Critical Thinking Skills

Making wise choices does not come naturally to many students. They have neither the skills, the experience nor the patience, in many cases, to truly examine an issue in depth. This is a quality that is earned through practice, so we should try to give students as many opportunities to practice as we can. I find that beginning a lesson with an open question, such as “Assess how far…”, “To what extent does…” and revisiting the question every 10-15 minutes from a new angle, helps students to develop their critical thinking skills. Top tip – get students used to making a case for a viewpoint. Then have them argue in defence of it whilst other students pick holes in their arguments. They will love it and it will prepare them well for resolving conflicts in the future- a very useful skill.

Problem-Solving Skills

All successful leaders have problem-solving skills. That is how they succeed – they identify a problem that someone has and they provide a solution. Within their own organisations, they will encounter problems too, be it with processes, products or people. In lessons, I try to simulate scenarios where solving a problem is the main success criteria for the activity. It could be done as a role play, as a Dragon’s Den episode, etc – whatever works for your subject!

Teamwork

Most employees work in teams to complete goals. They usually have individually defined roles within their teams, but in order to work effectively, they must collaborate. This was a prominent feature of a previous post of mine – There’s no “I” in iPad. I build collaboration into most of my lessons in some way, shape or form. The crucial thing to remember is that each individual must know what their own role is and why they are collaborating. This is as opposed to working individually. Understanding the value of collaboration will only serve to help students adopt it willingly.

The Future

Project Management

A key feature of managerial positions in most companies and for independent entrepreneurs is the ability to manage projects effectively. But this isn’t usually a key feature of most curriculums so if we want our students to succeed further up the career ladder, then we should at the very least lay the foundations for them whilst they are with us. Tip: Set students projects that require a number of simultaneous tasks to be completed using a range of resources. This will help simulate the world they will enter in the future. Adding complexity to project management is also a particularly useful tool for challenging the most-able students in your classroom.

Self-Directed Learning

Learning doesn’t finish when you leave school. However, you typically won’t have someone around to teach you what you need to know once you’ve left. This is why it’s vitally important to be taught, whilst at school, the value of and some methods of independent, self-directed study. I try to implement self-directed study for each of my classes at least once a term. This is usually on something beyond their typical homework tasks. Examples have included:

  • learn from scratch how to create a movie trailer on an iPad
  • find a good YouTube video that teaches you about Asimov’s laws of robotics and assess what makes the video “good”
  • use www.thestudentroom.com to create a list of the best revision sites for studying and revising for your AS Religious Ethics paper. Use one of the sites to create a mini-revision guide for a topic of your choice.

I’ll be posting soon on how and why I think education systems require a revolution, to keep pace with an ever-changing world. I’d love your thoughts on this.

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Engaging Boys – A Practical Guide

Engaging Boys

How To Engage Boys

[Updated 29 November 2018]

Why is engaging boys so difficult?

Boys are treated like defective girls”, so says psychologist and author Michael Thompson. I think he’s right. Have you noticed that boys are frequently compared to girls with regards to exam scores, classroom behaviour, the standard of work produced and neatness of presentation? Many boys fail to perform as well in these areas,  leading to ‘poor’ performance in formal examinations where it counts the most. Engaging boys to raise their attainment is clearly a huge challenge.

So, are boys just not as good as girls when it comes to formal assessment? Or is the system unfairly rigged to favour girls over boys? Let’s see.

Myth: “All boys are the same”

Not true! Just look at the last group of boys you taught and their wide spectrum of attributes. Boys are often excitable, creative, loud and headstrong. However, there are quiet boys too, who lack confidence, struggle creatively and who seem distant when you try to engage them. There are even quiet boys who are incredibly confident and loud boys who are overcompensating due to their own perceived weaknesses. It is often difficult to decide which “category” they fit into. However, the real challenge for educators is to move away from “categorising” boys at all but to understand how differently WE treat them.

So what’s the solution? Should we just train the boys to be like the girls?

The problem with boys and girls…

Toys

Many of the boys I teach typically read less often and consequently read fewer books than the girls – particularly fiction books. Why is this? Is it because boys don’t enjoy reading? No. Is it a lack of quality authors writing for male audiences? No. It’s more complex than that. Engaging boys differently to girls is crucial and here’s why:

Girls are typically brought up in a different way to boys. Their toys and games are different. The heavily gendered characters and storylines in the cartoons they watch are very different. The roles they are expected to play, due to their genders are extremely different. This causes a knock-on effect: at school when boys and girls are given the same task to do, they will naturally approach it in different ways, due to the way they have been conditioned by their environment.

The consequence…

Girls are often more collaborative in their approach to tasks, seeking guidance and support, constantly engaging in a feedback loop with their peers and teachers. Girls are encouraged to do this through the type of play where conversations are a key element.

Conversely, boys are often more solitary, waiting until they have completed a task (to whatever standard) to then present their finished product to others for feedback. Once given feedback, boys then get on with solitary work again. Boys are not encouraged by fellow boys, nor do they seek encouragement. The need for support is perceived by boys as a weakness. Their style of play is heavily dominated by competition and shows of individual strength.

Girls are also better prepared for tasks involving empathy, evaluation of evidence and being diplomatic, as those skills are built into the types of “play” activities they participated in when they were younger. Have you ever witnessed a dolls tea party? Compare that scene to a boy smashing a Lego house with a dinosaur. Which skills do you think will benefit those children in a formal examination? Boys are expected to grow up to be brave, resilient, confident leaders who take no prisoners. These are useful traits in many areas but less so in formal examinations.

The solution to engaging boys is threefold!

1. Stop valuing “girly” attributes over “boyish” attributes

Let’s face it, in most cases neither of those terms are used in a positive way. However, we teachers often forget that stories about aliens destroying a football stadium can have as much literary value as a love poem. We arbitrarily celebrate the types of media that girls tend to gravitate towards and we negatively stereotype the media that boys gravitate towards. The result is that boys become used to hearing that certain things they value are worthless. They might love pirate stories, but after being told that they shouldn’t read them all the time, they eventually stop reading, because they aren’t interested in reading anything else. Boys then lose interest in their favourite things and many lose interest in general.

2. Competition?

Engaging boys in competition

Boys often love competition. However, this is also a lazy stereotype. Some boys hate it and would rather work collaboratively, rather than in an adversarial way. Not only that but as I wrote earlier, boys need to learn the skills of collaboration in our classrooms, as they often won’t be taught this explicitly in their “home” environment.

Be patient with boys here, it often won’t come as naturally as it does with girls – the boys haven’t had anywhere near as much practice! Competition is great for engaging some boys but you must include opportunities for collaboration within the competitive environment too.

One book that I think you’ll find useful on strategies for boys is Gary Wilson’s Pocket Pal: Raising Boys’ Achievement [affiliate link]. It’s full of quick and easy tips, based on extensive practical experience in the classroom.

3. Feedback loops

Feedback Loops

Feedback is crucial for engaging boys. The earlier in their lives that boys learn to give and accept feedback, without any fear of perceived weakness, the better they will perform and the faster they will progress. The feedback must be a continual process, like a conversation – not just an event at the end of a piece of work. As by then, the feedback is too late in many respects.

Once boys are able to use the feedback process more naturally, they will begin to be able to develop deeper self-evaluation skills and may even engage more often in independent learning too. This helps to narrow the gap between boys and girls.

4. The Teacher-Student Relationship

In my experience, having a positive relationship with the boys you teach makes the biggest difference. This isn’t rocket-science, we should be aiming for this in all of our students. However, when boys are often boisterous, the positive teacher-student relationship we need and they often crave can be difficult to maintain. Keeping this at the forefront of your mind, though, can be the one thing that makes the difference in the long-run. Don’t expect the boys you teach to be as naturally compliant as the girls. Work hard at engaging the boys, through challenging work and even just by having a conversation with them as they work. Find out what makes them tick and show your interest in their lives. The boys I teach respond particularly well to this and it has made a huge difference to the attitude they show in my lessons and towards their work in general.

Any thoughts…?

Do you have any tips on how you engage boys in your lessons? Leave a comment!

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A Guide to Excellent Revision

Revising Effectively

“Little Jimmy just isn’t good at revision…”

In an ideal world, we would plan a sequence of lessons, teach it according to the plan, encourage lots of revision and then little Jimmy would demonstrate every last thing you’ve taught him when it came to the examination. Unfortunately, this isn’t an ideal world and for many reasons we purposefully deviate from our initial plans. Add to this the fact that Jimmy is burdened with huge volumes of information to recall, analyse and evaluate. There’s also a good chance he isn’t doing any independent learning at home. Critically, Jimmy just does not seem to “test well”, even when under less formal conditions he demonstrates deep understanding and applies skills effectively. Houston, we have a revision problem! But is there a solution?

Below I’ve identified the four key factors , in my own teaching experience, which have had the most significant positive impact on revision and consequently on examination success

1. Prioritise key topics 

In any given exam, the question setters want the candidates to demonstrate mastery of particular topics and skills. The questions they have asked in the past are usually* a good guide to what they will expect students to know in the future, so plan accordingly. If for example, an examination board had set out eight topics for students to learn but had only asked questions about seven of them so far, then that might be a trigger to focus particularly on the only unexamined topic as a priority. So, throughout your sequence of lessons, ensure you give extra time to topics/skills that:

  • Cross over into a number of different examination questions
  • Look like they are more likely to come up this time
  • Previous students have struggled with in past examinations.

*Warning: trying to guess the questions in advance is a risky strategy. Sometimes it pays dividends, but it can also lead to damaging outcomes if content is not also revised thoroughly.

2. How to not run out of time 

Timing in examinations is frequently used by students as a reason for underperformance. However in the majority of cases that I’ve witnessed, it doesn’t really stand up to any level of scrutiny. Most of the students who cite “timing” as the reason for not finishing a paper actually spent a lot of their time in the exam writing nothing, because they were struggling to recall information. This is not a timing issue, but a memory issue.

3 methods for memorising key pieces of content include:

  • Peer Q&A – students pair up and test each other using quickfire questions
  • Cue cards – on one side students write out 3-5 bullet points summarising a topic. They do this for a number of topics, then hand them over to someone else, who will test their memory of the key bullet points.
  • Jigsaws – students create a 3×3 grid. On one side of each line, they write out a statement, keyword, case study, scholar, quote, etc. On the other side of each line, they write out a corresponding statement, definition, case study conclusion, theory name, etc. On the outer parts of the grid they can write down some red herrings, so that when it has all been cut out, they will find completing the grid more of a challenge. The higher the level of challenge, the more active the brain will be and consequently the more likely that students will be able to recall the information quickly enough.
Jigsaw Grid (Christian attitudes towards abortion and euthanasia)

3. Practise, practise, practise

Usain Bolt is the 100m world record holder. How did he become this? Clue: he didn’t just spend all of his time reading about running, drawing diagrams about running, creating calendars about when he will run in the future and watching other people run. He practised running. Over and over and over and over. Bolt knew that in order to ensure success on the day when it counted the most, he would have to work just as hard on days when it (seemed like it) counted the least. He will have “failed”, by his own standards, on so many of those practise runs that it would make many runners give up. However, he just saw these failures as another way not to do things on race day. Gradually, he cut out these mistakes and by the end of his training, he didn’t make errors anymore. He trained hard so that the race would be easy. Many of his competitors will have trained easy, but predictably their race was too hard. Students must approach their revision for examinations in exactly the same way.

4. Routine

Top performers in all professions have something in common. They typically have a morning routine during their training, which doesn’t change on the day when they need to perform under pressure at the highest level. This is true for athletes, politicians, soldiers, singers, entrepreneurs, actors, etc, etc.

Far in advance of the examination, give students an opportunity to reflect on their own morning routine and to evaluate its advantages and disadvantages with regards to their performance later in the day. Having students do this on a regular basis will help them find their own routine which works for them. Once they find their routine, encourage students to stick to it as closely as possible, particularly on the day of their examination.

In my own experience, students have benefited from this as they approach examination day. Fear of the unknown is the worst of all. But if we can our get students to reflect about every minute of their day, then some of that fear will dissipate. Some students might even see examination day as just a normal day like any other. After all, they aren’t doing anything differently.

Please share this post with other teachers – this is the “business end” of the academic year and we all need all the help we can get!

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There’s no “I” in iPad

iPad

Stop, Collaborate and Listen

Students love using technology in the classroom. Not just because an iPad makes a change from pens and paper and not because it’s “less work” than other traditional methods. They enjoy using an iPad, or other technology because it’s what they do outside of the classroom – they are “digital natives”. Student use iPads, apps, video streaming, social media, etc, 24/7. They know within seconds that a sports star has signed a new contract, that a spoiler for a film has gone public, or that a celebrity has just been photographed doing something exciting.

Students receive the information, evaluate whether they like it or not, share it with others and comment on vital pieces of that information at length. Media outlets and tech companies are streets ahead of many schools in the way they deliver content. If we want to increase engagement and demonstrate relevance to our students, then we must find a vehicle for content delivery that is just as immersive as the student experience beyond the classroom.

To some teachers, this thought can be daunting. Particularly for those who aren’t too tech-savvy. But if you are already reading this blog (and hopefully signed up to the email subscription!) then I’m probably preaching to the choir. There are devices and apps for everything you can imagine, with more and more being released every week.

Online Collaboration

Here is a practical guide to using iPad apps, to enhance your existing teaching methods.

1. Content Delivery

YouTube: Film an explanation or demonstration. Students can use this to learn key information at the beginning of a topic, revise for a test, evaluate their own work or the work of others. May require more than one take – but fantastic as a permanent revision resource for students to use at home!

Explain Everything: Copy text and images into the templates in the Explain Everything iPad app and let it create an animated presentation to show to students. Easy!

2. Presenting

iMovie: Students can research information about a whole topic and create a movie trailer based on their research. My students created a disaster movie trailer, based on research they had done on the causes and effects of global warming and humanity’s response to it. They loved watching each other’s and can still remember a great deal.

WordPress: I’ve already posted about my (not so secret) love of blogging, but I’ll keep doing it until we’ve all had a go! Seriously, why not? (Top tip: post a link to an article, then tell students that their homework is to submit a short response – but they can’t repeat anything another student has already mentioned. They will all try to complete their homework as soon as possible, rather than leaving it to the last-minute!)

3. Collaboration

Dropbox: Students can work remotely from each other and drop files into the same shared space. It syncs in real-time too, so they can see how each other is editing their project. Brilliant if students are all contributing via mobile devices with limited access to a hard-drive.

Twitter: Write a tweet (a comment no longer than 140 characters), include a # (hashtag for those of you still living in 2006) and tell your students to follow (search for) that # and tweet their reply, making sure to include the # within their reply. Excellent for sharing online content and debating it beyond the classroom.

Apps

What do these technologies have in common?

The clue is in the Vanilla Ice quote at the top of the post – collaborate. Students collaborate on social media, when it comes to sharing links to a funny video, to comment on a photo, to react to a shocking news headline. They engage each other in a debate – sometimes to further their own agenda, sometimes to follow someone else’s. Collaboration is the most fun and engaging part of many lessons – are our traditional teaching methods set up to provide opportunities for this? The apps above definitely are. They enable collaboration to happen with ease – they are a central feature. So…

Your iPad mission (should you choose to accept it):

Ok folks, it’s that time again – have a look at what you can try out THIS WEEK (be honest – if you say you’ll do it next week then you probably won’t ever do it). Borrow an iPad or even a set of them so students can make a movie trailer, create a walk-through of an experiment and upload it to YouTube, set up a Twitter account and start a conversation.

As always, let me know how it goes!

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Using WordPress to Teach Students

 Blogging with WordPress

Why should you use WordPress to teach students?

In order to teach effectively, you must have the following three things in place:

  1. Excellent source material for students to gather research from
  2. The right questions asked at the right time and in the right way (Read my post on Asking the Right Questions)
  3. A good space to debate the answers to those questions in depth – THE BLOG!

Too often, established teachers, or newly qualified teachers with little experience of creating online media, shy away from tasks like building a website. It looks like it will be too difficult. However, there are many tools and templates available to make this easy. I’ve found many simple walk-throughs on YouTube, and on WordPress itself. My only regret is that I didn’t start blogging earlier – it’s so much easier than it looks. In fact, the last blog I created took less than five minutes to create from scratch! Read this post for a step-by-step guide to creating your first class blog in five minutes.

What exactly is WordPress?

Well a blog is just a vehicle for delivering online content, only it is incredibly easy to self-publish and there are very few (if any) barriers to entry. I have used blogs for around six years now, on and off and students love them. For teaching, Iuse www.wordpress.com – they host the blog I use with my A Level Law students and it’s FREE!

However, if like me, you want even more functionality for your blog, then I would recommend using www.wordpress.org. WordPress can host the blog for you, but I would recommend using a hosting service like SiteGround. This host is the one I use for www.teachingandlearningguru.com. SiteGround offer absolutely fantastic 24/7 customer service (there is always someone on the end of the phone to answer any questions you have) and they were the cheapest and most reliable hosting service that I was willing to use for my first ‘paid’ website.

<a href=”http://www.siteground.com” onClick=”this.href=’https://www.siteground.com/web-hosting.htm?afbannercode=1a4de7fd3648d62d78af76eb1554a898′” ><img src=”https://ua.siteground.co.uk/img/banners/general/dynamic-price/pounds/120×600.jpg” alt=”Web Hosting” width=”120″ height=”600″ border=”0″>

I chose WordPress because someone (a fellow teacher) recommended it to me and when I had my first go, I found it very intuitive and it took no time at all to publish my first piece of content. Other popular blogging sites include Weebly, Blogger, Tumblr and Wix, amongst many others, but in my opinion, WordPress wins hands down. There’s a reason why over 27% of websites in the entire world use WordPress!

How could I use WordPress to teach?

The short answer is any way you like. You can simply use it to publish articles for students to read. It could be used to provide an online homework space for students to discuss and debate via the comments section (where you can approve or not approve comments with the click of a button). You could just do what I did initially, which was to publish the link to a press article and invite the students to leave comments below (moderated by me of course). Click here for an example. You could even encourage students to write their own articles to be posted and commented on, following their own independent learning.

Blogging with WordPress

What are the advantages and disadvantages of using WordPress?

Have you ever had a group of students look at you with misery in their eyes as you reach for a dusty stack of textbooks? Next time, tell the class that they will instead be on their very own website debating with each other! Engagement goes through the roof every time I’ve used a blog – although I do have a love of certain textbooks – you can’t beat the smell of print on paper! To build excitement about using a blog to teach, get the students to come up with the blog name themselves and have them vote for the most popular.

Blogs are easy to write, edit, or delete if needed. For the blog’s author, you, everything you need is contained in a “dashboard”. Here you can click once to add a page, create a comments section, add social media links, etc. Below is an example of the dashboard I see when creating or editing posts for my students. It’s incredibly intuitive and easy to learn the very simple functions.

Using WordPress to Teach Students

You don’t even need any programming experience or knowledge of how the internet works – thankfully for me!

Students might forget an inspirational but throwaway comment during a classroom debate. That comment could change the direction of an essay. It could be the crucial foundation of their evaluation of a scientific process. It could make the difference to the technical movements in a physical sporting activity. By using a blog, there is less chance that students will miss or forget the information they’ve explored. This is because blogs are available to students and to yourself, twenty-four hours a day. They can even download an app to their mobile or tablet, which notifies them anytime you add a post or when someone posts a comment.

Disadvantages are the same as they are for every new method of delivery. It’s new to you. You will have to take a little time to learn some new skills, but they are basic skills that you already have if you use word-processing or presentation software. The systems you use in your school to analyse exam results or track attendance will be much harder to use than blogging sites like WordPress!

My challenge to you…

Try it. Go on. Spend 20 minutes creating your first blog, for you to use with one of your classes next week. Your students will love it (and they might even think that you are cool). Students still say “cool” right? Click here to begin creating your blog now.

Leave a comment and tell me all about your adventures in blogging – don’t be shy about leaving a link to your blog below – the more we see, the more we learn!

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How Flipped Learning Works

How to use flipped learning

What is Flipped Learning?

Flipped Learning is how we should all teach, all of the time. This is a bold claim, but I mean it sincerely. Not because I know it all (I really don’t!) and not because other methods don’t work (they do!). The simple aim of Flipped Learning is to ‘flip’ delivery of content, creating more independent students. Less challenging tasks are completed outside of the classroom, where there is less support available from the teacher. More challenging tasks are completed within the classroom, where there is more support available from the teacher. Independent learning becomes more embedded, student engagement increases and progress over time speeds up. Oh, and the best part is that it reduces teacher workload.

Flipped Learning has been around for a long time, but many of us haven’t thought to utilise it properly. Instead, we focus on a more traditional method of teaching. Teachers often deliver basic-level content then set a more complex task for homework that builds upon the activity from that lesson. The homework task is often difficult, pushing the students to their limits. After all, we do want our students to be challenged! However, little Jimmy returns the next day and says he hasn’t completed his homework as it was too hard. Weeks go on and the gap widens between those who are more-able and those who are less-able.

So, back to little Jimmy…

Solution 1: Provide little Jimmy with a more detailed set of instructions for each homework task?

Solution 2: Provide little Jimmy with a different task to the rest of the class?

Solution 3: Assume little Jimmy was lazy, tell him off and don’t change your homework policy?

Question: Which of the above solutions is the right one here?

Answer: ALL of them.

However, we’ve tried all of these and had mixed results. Not only that, but you might even be tempted to dismiss the third solution, viewing it as too hard to implement, or even a ‘waste of time’ if it doesn’t work. Either that or you are afraid of making changes that you and your colleagues view as adding further unmanageable workload. But I can tell you from experience that there is a way to implement a Flipped Classroom approach without increasing workload. In fact, when used properly, you actually reduce your workload over time, something we should all aspire towards. You can read this post for more tips on reducing workload.

Encouraging and guiding independent learning is the key to success

Mastering independent learning is what will ultimately make you students more resilient and less likely to give excuses for missing deadlines and failing to complete work. Furthermore, it will enable the students to go beyond what you as the teacher are able to achieve, in the limited number of hours that you see them in the classroom.

In reality, the Flipped Learning method of delivery, when approached sensibly, reduces the incidence of missed deadlines, challenges students further within a sequence of lessons and REDUCES WORKLOAD! That’s right – it’s that magic wand we’ve been searching for. You can click here to read my Seven Ways To Reduce Teaching Workload.

Why is Flipped Learning important?

In order for students to make outstanding progress, they must be able to move through Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning, from the basics of remembering information, to being able to deploy that information is a meaningful and complex way. To achieve such a feat in lesson-time alone is almost impossible today. However, the Flipped Learning approach leverages time outside of the lesson, in order to move through the stages at a quicker pace whilst supporting students during the most complex parts. All you are doing is re-ordering activities, so that students are supported when they need it.

Bloom's Taxonomy for Flipped Learning

How can I use Flipped Learning in my lessons?

Lesson 1: Introduce students to the course you are teaching – give out information on the basic outline and discuss future issues to be studied further. This allows students to read ahead if they wish. Your more engaged students will do this if you open the door for them.

Homework task 1: Students research information from a book/watch a YouTube tutorial/listen to a podcast/etc, then answer a set of questions based on comprehension or evaluation of the material.

Lesson 2: Spend a little time on checking comprehension is completed to the standard required, then focus the rest of the lesson on applying that research to a problem-solving activity, an evaluative task, a scientific experiment, creating a product, or demonstrating a skill within a sport. Higher-order thinking skills are best studied and practised with you in the room to support the students. Many of them may not have this support at home.

Homework task 2: By this point, your students have established a basic understanding of the topic, have practised skills of analysis and evaluation and have seen model answers in class. The timing should now be perfect for students to tackle much more challenging tasks which synthesise their knowledge and understanding of the basics, with more complex material. The complex material that you add here should form a bridge from the topic which has just been taught, to the topic that you will cover in the next lesson.

Repeat this sequence until you have completed the course.

Examples of Flipped Learning resources to get you started

  • Podcasts – I often direct my students to iTunes as there is pretty much a podcast for anything you can imagine. Also, Audiopi has developed an extensive range of podcasts, created with GCSE and A Level students in mind. Read my post on Why Podcasts Improve Learning.
  • Video clips – As with podcasts, there are videos on everything. Youtube and Vimeo have an excellent range.
  • Books – Good old-fashioned words on pages. You can find books everywhere.
  • Market research – send students out to gather research on a topic from people they know. A simple Google Form can be created in minutes and emailed to anyone.
  • Blogs – You can find blogs on most topics, but make sure you thoroughly vet them first before directing students to them!

Nowhere in the Flipped Learning model has the teacher delivered basic-level content

Students can gather this information on their own. Obviously, don’t hand a ten-year-old an undergraduate textbook, or use a grainy video with a monotonous voice-over. The material must not only be accessible, it must also be engaging. Otherwise, students will ‘switch off’ and claim they couldn’t complete the task when in fact they just didn’t want to attempt it.

There are times where you, the teacher, as a subject-expert, needs to act “the sage on the stage”, but just not as often as previously thought. You can let go of the reins a little! Independent learning conducted frequently by the students relieves a lot of the pressure on you to deliver a high volume of content. The students are fully able to complete lower-intensity research tasks in their own time, freeing up lesson time for you to develop more advanced skills of analysis and evaluation and to deepen their understanding of key issues.

Congratulations!

You have saved time on delivering content, students have managed to do this for themselves! You have spent a higher proportion of classroom time on higher-order learning activities (see Bloom’s Taxonomy for details), challenging students to use information in a range of practical ways. Less time and energy has been spent chasing students for missed homework deadlines, as students now find homework tasks easier to do – they have fewer excuses!

But more importantly, your (previously sceptical) colleagues now want to know your secret to having more free time, happier students and higher exam results. You don’t have to “sell” Flipped Learning to them anymore!

My challenge to you

Dive in. Have a go. Try it. PLEASE! (You can thank me later!) And then use those extra hours you’ve freed up each week to have a rest.

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