Settling Your Rowdy Class: A Practical Guide

settling rowdy class

Settling Your Rowdy Class: A Practical Guide

This article was written for HWRK Magazine and published in the Spring 2020 edition, which you can read here.

Everyone knows that one teacher who everyone behaves for. They seem to do it all so effortlessly. Their presence is calming and with only the briefest of “looks” they can silence a roomful of hormonal teenagers. Students seem to be in total awe of them and it’s hard to see whether that awe stems from fear, respect, love, or a combination of all three. But however they achieved it, you can be absolutely certain that it didn’t happen overnight.

This is good news, especially if you are currently struggling to manage the behaviour of your students. Nothing worth having comes easily. And when it comes to behaviour, those battles are hard-won. For this reason, nobody with any sense will expect you to tame your little lions by 9:30 tomorrow morning. It comes with practice and by using a few simple tactics, some of which I’ll outline here.

But before I take you through the strategies which have helped me to settle even the rowdiest of classes, you firstly need to think hard about the people in your classroom. We can forget this, but they are all different and, mostly, they want to learn (even that boy you found last Tuesday, hiding under a desk, his fingers scooping chocolate spread from a jar smuggled from Food Tech).

There are the quiet, compliant ones, the hard-workers, the easily distracted, the shouters, the interrupters, the fidgeters and those who can’t help but stare out of windows when left to their own devices (this was me). You also teach some natural high-fliers, alongside students with significant learning difficulties. Some have stable, middle-of-the-road lives, whereas others’ are more chaotic. Health plays a part too, as does the level of parental support. Attendance is another huge factor and often linked to all of the above. But over the long term, we usually have little control over any of these, no matter how we try to intervene.

You can only control what happens in your classroom. Remember that and you will sleep a little easier. (Only a little easier though!) Fortunately, there ARE things you can do to tip the scales in your favour, when it comes to settling your rowdiest students.

So, to begin with, we must take care of the bigger picture: the “climate”. No, not those windy days that send half of Year 7 round the bend and the other half up the wall, but the climate within your classroom walls: the routines, expectations and processes that make for a calm and orderly environment.

Rule number 1: Make your expectations EXPLICIT

This has two distinct advantages. Firstly, students will actually have to think about their own behaviour. For some of them, this may be the first time they’ve done this in their lives, so be patient. Secondly, no student can ever again claim that they “didn’t realise they weren’t allowed to do that” (a favourite excuse used by many of my previous students).

Your explicit instructions should be brief and clear. Complexity is the enemy here. You should also remind your class of your expectations for them at regular intervals throughout the year (or half term, depending on your class), to “refresh” their memories. With any luck, you’ll be supported by a well-oiled whole-school behaviour policy, with specialist staff on-hand for those who persist in their challenging behaviour and a functioning national policy for providing support in specialist centres for “exceptional” students. Stop laughing. I can hear you, you know.

Rule number 2: Begin the lesson with naturally calm tasks

For some classes I’ve taught, this is the make-or-break moment. I know that if I can make it through the first five minutes, then the rest of the lesson will be a piece of cake. But there are different ways to achieve this, depending on who you teach, your objective for that lesson and what your long-term goals are for the class.

If you want the class to begin quietly, then don’t surprise them. If they’re agitated, or overstimulated, then they’ll naturally make noise. Anyone who has tried to teach straight after a playground fight or even just a cake-sale at breaktime knows this. Keep it simple. A straightforward task on the board, or on a worksheet works well. Retrieval practice of a recent topic is often better for settling students than a topic learnt a long time ago, as they’ll probably perform better, so won’t give up quickly and look for a distraction. Over time, you can ramp up the challenge.

Begin with the students working independently. If the instructions are clear, there should be no reason to disrupt. Once they’ve worked well for a set period of time, you can allow your students to work in pairs or groups, if appropriate. Use this sparingly and as an incentive for maximum effect. You don’t have to be a Victorian schoolmaster or schoolmistress when going about it though. So long as you are firm and consistent in your rewards and sanctions, your students will eventually trust you and do as you ask. Once you embed this as a daily or weekly routine, your students will start to settle into it without thinking.

Rule number 3: Build relationships

This is a long-term strategy. Some students have relatively few positive relationships in their lives. This means that they aren’t used to having positive conversations. They aren’t used to people offering advice without it seeming like a personal attack. They don’t know how to respond positively to others doing well, when they are struggling themselves. Taking your time to find out a little about your students makes a huge difference to them.Slowly, they come to appreciate it and they will even take an interest in having a positive relationship with you too. This is especially so, if they can see that you are giving them chance after chance, when their perception (rightly or wrongly) is that others have given up on them too easily.

In the long-run, students who have built up positive relationships with their teachers are more resilient in those lessons, compared to others. They try that little bit harder and don’t want to let people down who they particularly trust and respect. Not only that, but investing time in your students is infinitely worthwhile for its own sake. When we learn about their lives and build those relationships with them, we enrich our own lives too. On your toughest days, this can be the thing that gets you through. Some of the most challenging students earlier in my career are now some of my fondest memories and this is all down to those times I spent really listening to them and learning from them. The funny thing about teaching is that it’s a two-way street.

Tactics you can try right now

Sometimes, you need to pay a little more attention to some of your students at the beginning of the lesson, to settle them. Zero-tolerance and outright appeasement strategies both have their place in certain contexts, but are often too extreme for most students to respond well to and they can backfire spectacularly. Just imagine the reaction of your most volatile students if you resorted to barking commands at them every lesson. I bet they wouldn’t put in their maximum effort when it came to completing that homework. Instead, here are some tried and tested methods to help guide your most spirited students towards positive behaviour.

Tactic 1: Keep them busy / grease the wheels

In the past, I’ve taught students who would go straight into “look at me” mode upon entering the classroom, unless I greeted them, asked them to sit down and take out their planner and pen. I’d then remind them of a recent achievement and how I’d like them to keep at it today to maintain that momentum. I’d then give them the instructions for the first task one-to-one, but loud enough for the rest of the class to hear, so I didn’t have to repeat it. Sometimes, I’d even help them with the first part of the answer, just to make sure they could make a start, whether they needed help or not. Remember: give, give, give. For some students, all you need to do is to grease the wheels a little, as it allows them no opt-out and therefore fewer opportunities to disrupt others. The added bonus is that the rest of the class see this “lively” student working and this can have a calming and positive effect across the rest of the class.

Tactic 2: Physical activity

Some students haven’t experienced much success during their week at school. So when you give them a challenge, it can lead to exasperation and fear on their part. At this point, some of them turn to disruptive behaviour. You can avoid this, however, by giving them a quick physical task. This could be giving out equipment, collecting homework, checking on something in the classroom, writing the date on the board, etc. It could even be unrelated to the lesson, but a favour to you, e.g. “would you mind moving those books over there for me?” Whilst I’d love to challenge my students constantly, it can have a negative impact at times. Give little Charlie that endorphin-boosting quick win to build his self-esteem and resilience, so that when the real challenge comes, he can tackle it without throwing his arms up in the air before writing a single word.

Tactic 3: Problem-solving

Some students love to tell you what you should be doing. After all, only they know what it’s like to be in their shoes, innit? Well here’s your chance to turn that challenge back to them. Give them a problem to solve, with all the materials they will need and place your most animated students together in one group. The effect this has on the other groups is that it gives them the time and space to do things their own way. The effect it has on that energetic group is that Paige will eventually be forced to listen to Millie, without shouting across the room. You can increase the level of challenge by removing some of the materials that they need to complete the task easily. Or you could only offer them partial instructions so they have to work things out using inference and creativity. Be warned though: this might undo all the hard work in getting them to focus on the work, so remove those scaffolds carefully, or Paige and Millie might kick off again!

Tactic 4: Make it all about them

We’ve all taught a student who made it all about them at every possible opportunity. Why not harness that? Some students respond particularly well to being given the opportunity to “rant on a page” about their views on a topic, or their response to an assessment score. The trick here is to get them to keep writing. Students should be given free rein to explore their thoughts in whatever direction they feel is most honest. But make sure they can support all of their arguments with reasons!

Some of them just want to get something simple off their chest, like how unfair question 8 was, or why they should be studying chemistry at all. But the more they write, the more that they and you will uncover the underlying reasons for their attitudes. It might be that question 8 was perfectly fair, but Kenzie didn’t have time to revise that topic because of a lethal combination of ballet rehearsals, Geography coursework and her newborn twin sisters keeping everyone in the house on their toes (not ballet-related).

One way to make this task particularly effective is to tell students from the outset that their responses won’t ever be read out to the class. This not only avoids the potential for libellous anonymous disclosures being made, but it also gives your students the freedom to express their views without fear of what others will think. Most importantly though, it builds their trust in you, which you’ll need if you want to deepen those ever-important relationships.

I won’t lie to you. Settling a rowdy class isn’t easy, just watch me try to teach Year 9 during period 5 on a Friday. But if you play the long game, you’ll get there. It’s classroom experience that wins in the end and you’ll be there longer than they will. Maintain your high standards, be patient and pay attention to your students. Everything else will take care of itself.

Why “Teaching” Should Only Be Priority Number 2 When Schools Return

wellbeing

Our students are as worried as we are that they are falling behind in their studies, especially those who have public examinations to take next year. Those who aren’t worried soon will be, as the clock runs down and the pressure builds. You would think that this means we need to prioritise interventions, extra classes and a raft of homework tasks to mitigate the time spent away from the classroom.

But the lack of subject knowledge isn’t the issue we need to address first. What matters is that our students’ wellbeing is taken seriously. Not in an “Are you all ok? Right, let’s crack on then!” kind of way, but with a much greater emphasis put on deep and meaningful pastoral care.

The children, whether in Reception or Sixth Form will have a lot of questions. Some of those questions will appear fairly straightforward, but they could be masking much deeper fears. Students who ask you “When will we be going over (topic X)?” Might not really care about what time or date you give them. What they might really be concerned about is “Will we finish the course in time, as I’m trying to get into a top university to study Medicine and my grades matter a heck of a lot”. Others might smirk and brag that they just played X-Box all day long (students, not staff, contrary to what some in the press might want the public to believe). But deep down, it’s just a show of bravado and they really don’t want the embarrassment of falling behind their peers, who managed to complete their remote-learning tasks during lockdown.

Again though, this is only a snapshot of the fears playing on students’ minds. Some will need far more support. Ann Longfield, the Children’s Commissioner is extremely concerned that the early warning system that schools provide has removed a safety net for the vulnerable. In her recent report, We’re all in this together? (April 2020) she details just how students are at risk and how the usual and extensive support offered by schools is severely lacking in the current climate.

They are most likely at home, often exposed to a cocktail of secondary risks – a lack of food in the house, sofa-surfing or cramped living conditions, neglect, or experiencing acute difficulties due to parental domestic violence, substance abuse and mental health problems. Many will be caring for parents or siblings themselves in these incredibly difficult circumstances.

Ann Longfield (Children’s Commissioner), We’re all in this together? [April 2020]

Students also have fears about returning to school before it is actually safe to do so. As much as they want to catch up with their friends, they also don’t want to catch the coronavirusor pass it onto their loved ones at home, many of whom are extremely vulnerable. To expect students under this amount of worry to complete academic tasks to a high level of quality is misguided. Over time, students won’t deal well with this pressure and many will be at genuine risk of serious mental health issues, which would have a much more devastating effect on their future than if they had just gone a bit easier when returning to school.

We need to be careful.

Of course, I’m probably preaching to the choir on this one. Most teachers I encounter, both in real life and online have the students’ best interests at heart – it’s why we took the job. But let’s also not pretend that pressure won’t creep in to boost assessment scores, or to plug knowledge gaps with a barrage of extra tasks, making it impossible for students to breathe and process what is going on.

This is one of those times where we need to slow down, discuss, plan and then watch and respond. It might seem like a good idea to get out of the blocks quickly, but there will be a lot of students who simply want us to be there. Not to do anything. Just to be there.

Let’s prioritise talking to our students about how they are. Let’s check on their families. Let’s focus on alleviating their paralysing fears before we start trying to embed new subject content.

We’re teachers though. We have superpowers. We’ve got this.

How to Teach and Encourage Independent Study Skills

Independent Study

How to Teach and Encourage Independent Study Skills

This article was written for SecEd magazine and first published in September 2019.  You can read the original version on the SecEd website here.

There are some students who have such a broad and deep knowledge of some topics that it is difficult to teach them. This “nice problem” stems from the fact that those students study in their own time, independently of the work we give them as teachers.

It adds up. Students who routinely learn outside of the classroom build up a body of knowledge and make connections between these pieces of knowledge. The effect is that they are better equipped to solve problems and to analyse or evaluate with accuracy and fluency. In studying independently, students effectively multiply the amount of time they spend learning, compared with those who rely solely on classroom teaching.

According to multiple studies (which you can find in Meyer’s 2010 paper) independent learning benefits students in their acquisition of knowledge, the ability to judge accurately their own competency, it builds confidence and it increases engagement. As Meyer suggests, though, these effects are experienced differently by different groups of students, depending upon their individual contexts.

So, the question is, how should we teach independent learning skills so that all students achieve the maximum benefit? Below are some strategies worth considering.

Create the right conditions

Creating the conditions for developing independent learners is vital. Without particular attention being paid to this, you leave it to chance as to whether students will acquire the skills they need. To do this, you need to understand the barriers that well-meaning students have to overcome, in order to be truly independent.

First, there needs to be an environment where independent learning can actually take place. This means that there should be (a) access to information, (b) a lack of distractions and (c) space to make sense of the information in order to learn it.

For many students, this simply means (a) internet access, (b) leave your mobile phone in a different room and (c) have a desk to sit at to write down what you have learnt.

However, there is more to it than that. Access to information is only possible if students know how to search for it. Lack of distractions is not only from electronic devices, it can be social distractions in their lives. And many students do not even have a desk at home.

We might want students to be truly independent, but some will automatically find it easier, due to social factors beyond both their and our control. This is where building a home-school relationship is important. Parents might not always appreciate the impact that the home has on their child’s education, or might not know what to prioritise in order to help their child.

It is not a teacher’s job to tell a parent how to bring up their children, but it can sometimes be helpful to suggest things “that have worked for students in the past” in order to nudge parents towards positive changes they could make.

This is controversial, but my experience has been that parents are grateful to receive such guidance (when it is phrased carefully). Having a good, pre-existing relationship with those parents pays off, as they will more likely trust your advice, rather than see it as an attack on their parenting.

Provide sufficient motivation

Students who are motivated enough to complete independent study do so because they see v­alue in it. This can come down to a number of factors. Perhaps the teacher has explained well how the students stand to benefit from it. Maybe the students themselves have seen first-hand the benefits of doing it. Or there may be other factors such as parenting that could be nudging the students in the right direction. More often than not though, it is a combination.

Ultimately, students need to see that independent study is an essential part of their education, not just an “optional” addition to it.

Unfortunately, many students from disadvantaged backgrounds do not experience these positive influences as often as some of their peers. The disadvantage is then compounded further, as the gap widens between the haves and the have-nots.

Motivating the least advantaged students should, therefore, be where the focus lies for us as teachers. Just as we would scaffold responses to challenging in-class tasks, we should also scaffold our guidance on independent study.

  • Step 1: Break down what it means, what it looks like when done properly and then demonstrate visibly a successful outcome. Getting students to buy into the value of independent learning is crucial, as they will be more likely to pay attention to the next step.
  • Step 2: Give students a brief taste of independent study, followed by positive but meaningful feedback on their efforts. Remember, students will be more motivated to study independently if they have already experienced success with it in the past, no matter how small the success was. Building small-scale independence into your weekly routine with the students will give them a huge edge by the time the stakes are raised, further on in their school careers. At this point, what is being done is less important than the fact that something is being done at all. Building good routines is essential.
    Increase students’ attention span

A major reason why students are sometimes poor at independent study is the lack of time-parameters. How long should independent study take? How long should study sessions last? One way to mitigate this is to teach students to work for short intervals, followed by a short break.

The Pomodoro Technique, created by Francesco Cirillo in the 1980s, is a good method to use for this. Students will not be as likely to plough on for too long. Conversely, they will not be put off by the prospect of long and arduous study sessions.

Independent study techniques

Promoting some effective independent study techniques with your students should also help.

Low-stakes quizzes: Low-stakes quizzes are one of the most effective study methods you could use. Simply reading your revision notes will not have anywhere near the same impact on learning as students can fool themselves into thinking they have understood and memorised content when they have not. Students can design quizzes on their own, can pair up with each other, or can access paid or even free quizzes online.

Flash cards: Flash cards are one adaptation of these low-stakes quizzes, with many students turning to online platforms such as Quizlet to create or download topic or even course-specific sets. The best thing about using these low-stakes quizzes is that you can accurately track your progress. You can read more on the research evidence for this method via the Chartered College of Teaching (2019).

Flipped learning: Another independent learning technique students should experience is flipped learning. You can implement this in a simple way. Over the course of a scheme of work, tell students what they will be learning about in the following lesson. Then ask them if they can find out one piece of information about the topic, to bring to the next lesson. Invariably, some will find things out and some will not. Reward those who do and have a conversation with those who did not about why they struggled.

Sometimes these students just need a little guidance on where to look, or what type of thing they should do. Others might just be a little lazy and need to see that there really is value in doing it. One way to get students to see the value of doing it is to get them to highlight the information they gained by independent study in the work they later produce.

This is also a good way for you to see at-a-glance who is and who is not doing it. But whatever happens, each lesson, ask everyone to find out something else for the next topic. It gives them all a chance to start over and either begin doing it, or improve how they do it.

Practice exam papers: Practice papers are vital when preparing for exams such as GCSEs and A levels, where vast amounts of knowledge are tested. Part of the reason why some students underperform in exams is that they are not familiar enough with the exam conditions.

Getting students to attempt whole papers, or even individual sections of papers can be invaluable. It highlights gaps in knowledge (almost immediately) and helps students to understand how much time they should spend on different types of question. Exam boards all have specimen and past paper exams available on their websites.

The cost of independent study

Independent study requires students to spend time that they could otherwise be spending doing directed homework tasks. Or going to the park. Or sleeping. Sometimes, therefore, we should bear in mind that if we focus too much on promoting independent learning, it might end up being to the detriment of other things. For some students, it might be one burden too many. About this, we should be mindful.

That being said, I am yet to find students who have suffered from too much independent study. So, with perhaps the odd exception, we should keep promoting it.

Returning To School After Covid-19: What’s The Plan?

Filling in the Gaps

Do you know where to begin, when schools return?

We’re living through unusual times. Students, parents and teachers alike are trying to navigate the brave new world of education, while at the same time dealing with illness, isolation and new working arrangements. Not only that, the mental toll that this all takes is immeasurable.

But one day, it will end. So what then? Do we just go back to normal? I highly doubt it. As the days go by, a new “normal” seems to be emerging across the country and beyond. Companies who once ran large offices have successfully moved almost entirely online. Household shopping habits, panic-buying aside, have adapted with more and more people opting for online delivery. And schools have begun, finally, to adopt more remote-learning practices, emulating to varying levels those of other countries such as South Korea, China and the US, although in fairness this is much more tailored to university-based rather than school-based courses. Will it become the new normal for schools? Who knows. I suspect we will see more of it when we return to school. Watch this space.

It’s entirely possible, likely even, that schools won’t formally return until September 2020. When that happens, teachers will have a battle on their hands. Students will not all have had equal access to home-learning. Many students have their own laptops, of course. But some have very little in the way of IT facilities in their household beyond, perhaps, a smartphone.

Similarly, some families will have been proactive in pushing their children to make progress through the work set by their teachers. Obviously this will not be the case for all families, with some families being crippled by their health, education, or socio-economic conditions, regardless of their willingness to engage with schoolwork. For some (generally privileged) families, this will be the first time they have experienced anything like hardship. As Emily Maitlis recently mentioned on Newsnight, Covid-19 is not the “great leveller” that some politicians would have you believe. It has hit the least privileged the hardest. However, there are outliers, both positive and negative and we need to be particularly mindful of that, when planning our next steps.

There will be knowledge gaps. Chasms in some cases. So, when students return to school, teachers will need to spend far more time ensuring that missed milestones are hit, essential knowledge is covered and that each of your students can access what they need.

We’ve always done this, of course, but this challenge will be far greater, as entire topics may have to be retaught to groups within your classes. Below is something I will be doing to help diagnose the weak points that each of my students may have, on their return. It’s a work-in-progress and I’d love feedback on how you might improve the model, so please leave a comment on this article or tweet me @guruteaching and let me know what you think.

The 4-Step Plan for September

Step 1 – Assess Students’ Confidence

Using a Google Form (or something similar), I will create a list of topics that would normally have been covered and ask students to rate their confidence on each one. I’ll just be using a scale of 1-4:

  1. “I expect to perform extremely well on this area when assessed”
  2. “I expect to perform quite well on this area when assessed”
  3. “I’m not sure how well I will perform on this area when assessed”
  4. “I expect to perform poorly on this area when assessed”

I’ll then send this out to students, using Google Classroom. If you don’t use Google Classroom, you could just share the link via email, Class Charts, Class Dojo, or whatever platform you normally use.

N.B. It might be useful to send this out to students in July and then again in September, just to see how the summer break has affected students. This might be a bit of an ask though!

Once I have the responses, I can begin to prioritise which topics might require more teacher-input than others. Now I should point out that just because my students are “confident” in a topic, it doesn’t mean that they will definitely perform well when assessed. The two do tend to be loosely linked though, and in the absence of robust assessment data, I find that “confidence” is a useful starting point.

Step 2 – Teach the Essentials

We need to make sure that students cover the breadth and depth of their courses that they normally would. This is important for fulfilling National Curriculum and exam board commitments, but also because students have an entitlement to this information irrespective of our statutory duties. The problem we will face in September is that we will have an increased volume of content to cover in a short space of time. I’m working at the moment on identifying the most useful* pieces of each topic, such that if not everything can be covered adequately, at least students will still have a good chance of attaining well in their GCSE, A Level, or end of year examinations.

*By most useful, I mean pieces of knowledge that may be useful in a number of different assessment topics, rather than just in one topic. This could include specific principles, quotes, scholars, or broad themes and will differ depending on the course or subject.

Step 3 – Assess and Analyse

Assessments need to be particularly thorough. Standard mock papers won’t suffice, as they cover only a small proportion of what should have been learnt. Instead, I’ll be giving my students a series of short-answer questions to determine what they know and what they don’t, covering the breadth of the whole course. The questions won’t necessarily need to be in the style of the exam that students are preparing for, it might depend on what I (or you) want to draw from the students.

Some questions might even be multiple-choice Google Form quizzes that I can use to quickly ascertain where strengths and weaknesses lie, with next to no workload generated on the marking end. I can also keep these quizzes to be used by future cohorts.

Managing workload is going to be an even greater challenge than usual in the upcoming autumn term. September to December is always busy, but with the potential for Covid-19 to re-emerge after the summer (according to some experts), we need to be especially mindful of looking after ourselves and our colleagues as much as possible.

Step 4 – Personalisation and Filling in the Gaps

Ideally, the results from the assessment will be uniform across the class, with my students performing similarly well on some topics and similarly less well on others. But it’s more likely that students’ results will be less homogenous than usual. I will be ensuring that students keep a record in the front of their exercise books of their performance in different topics. This will help them to see at-a-glance how well they are performing. It will also, hopefully, provide parents and carers with some form of feedback on their child’s progress in between termly reports and progress evenings.

To personalise the learning, I will be compiling a list of go-to resources, with accompanying self-marked (Google Form) quizzes, so that students can independently fill in the gaps in their knowledge. Students will be asked to continue to update their assessment tracking sheets, to reflect the progress they make on their weaker areas. I expect that monitoring this personalisation system is going to be quite time-consuming at first, but as gaps are filled and students’ strengths and weaknesses become more uniform, the effort required should (hopefully) reduce.

Final Thoughts

My plan for September (or earlier) isn’t set in stone and may have to be adapted depending on the situation we find ourselves in when we return to school. Not only that, but we will also have a myriad of other non-academic issues to address, which in many ways are far more important. Relatively few of us will get through the next few months unscathed, but if we keep supporting each other with ideas and by sharing resources, we will all edge closer to where we need to be, wherever that is.

Stay safe.

Andy

You can also find me on Twitter @guruteaching. Say hi!

Four Ideas for Applying Rosenshine’s Principles

Rosenshine's Principles of Instruction

Four Ideas for Applying Rosenshine’s Principles

This article was written for SecEd magazine and first published in September 2019.  You can read the original version on the SecEd website here.

In recent months, Rosenshine’s Principles of Instruction have caused an uproar, it seems. Research-interested teachers have brought Rosenshine into the vernacular and sparked a fierce debate.

Many in the staffroom will look at these 10 principles and will tell you, “but, we have always done it that way”. But the truth is, we have not. This lack of self-reflection is a problem and a major one at that. For many teachers, the principles laid out by Rosenshine (2012) are a departure from what, in some quarters, is labelled as “progressive” – rather than “traditional” – teaching.

Progressive teaching methods have sought to minimise teacher-talk and allow students to discover knowledge, as opposed to the knowledge being “taught” to the students more directly. The progressive methodology has its place, of course, but when adopted as the main pedagogical approach of choice it is hugely flawed, as Rosenshine’s evidence suggests.

While some students flourish in the freedom granted by this discovery learning, many flounder, unable to direct themselves to the required end. The gap between them widens each lesson and they get left behind.

Rosenshine’s Principles of Instruction (first published in American Educator in 2012 and available as a free pdf download – see further information) set out 10 key findings, which, if incorporated into our practice, would substantially increase the quality of teaching and learning, improving outcomes for all students, rather than focusing solely on specific groups to the potential detriment of others.

The principles can be viewed as more traditional than progressive in nature. However, more importantly, they are crucial elements of excellent teaching – no matter what style you prefer.

Below, I have laid out some practical suggestions to accompany Rosenshine’s Principles. But first, let us look at these 10 principles:

  1. Begin the lesson with a review of previous learning.
  2. Present new material in small steps.
  3. Ask a large number of questions (and to all students).
  4. Provide models and worked examples.
  5. Practise using the new material.
  6. Check for understanding frequently and correct errors.
  7. Obtain a high success rate.
  8. Provide scaffolds for difficult tasks.
  9. Independent practice.
  10. Monthly and weekly reviews.

Of course, many of these principles, on first glance, appear obvious. After all, you would be hard pushed to find many teachers who did not use examples or questioning in their daily practice (principle 3).

Some are less obvious though (or at least are less frequently used), such as the students obtaining a high success rate to balance the building of confidence with setting meaningful challenge. According to Rosenshine, this success rate should be at around 80 per cent (principle 7).

But despite the research seeming so blindingly obvious, it is largely ignored, forgotten, or replaced by something more “artificial” when it comes to the planning of lessons, appraisal systems and teacher training programmes.

If, as a profession, we are to take ourselves seriously as “research-informed”, then we really should reflect upon how we can incorporate principles such as Rosenshine’s into our education system as a whole, not just ad hoc in individual classrooms.

So, how can this be done? Here are four suggestions – we should use Rosenshine’s Principles:

  1. In the planning of lessons across the curriculum.
  2. As the criteria for (most) lesson observations.
  3. To address (most) whole-school priorities.
  4. To set meaningful targets for CPD and appraisal.

1. In the planning of lessons

There is no “best” way to deliver a lesson, so I am very wary of anyone who claims to have the one true formula for success. That being said, there are some things which have been proven time and again to be of benefit for students.
Rosenshine’s evidence shows that lessons should begin with the recall of previous learning – not just of recently learned information, but also of information that was learned much earlier.

This helps to build and strengthen the schema of knowledge in the student’s mind, enabling new information to be understood, stick more easily and for longer.

New information should also be given in small doses, ideally with time given to practise recalling and using that information, under the guidance of the teacher. This helps the students to take in the new knowledge and synthesise it with their prior knowledge.

Live, worked examples (not pre-prepared model-answers) should be demonstrated by the teacher, who models how the information should be presented, applied, analysed, evaluated, etc.

This has the benefit of giving the students a visible idea of what knowledge and skills they should be able to replicate or create on their own.

It also shows to the students what the “journey” to the answer looks like, helping them to tackle challenges one step at a time, building resilience.

Questions should be asked frequently and to all students throughout the lesson. This can be a huge challenge, so do not feel guilty if you do not get around all 30 of your students in one lesson. However, aiming to get around your class on a regular basis will achieve two things. First, it provides opportunities to assess and give feedback to each student. Second, it instils in the students the idea that there is no opt-out; students cannot just refuse to pay attention, because everyone will be expected to answer at some point in the lesson.

Finally, give students the opportunity to practise on their own – a challenge that determines whether the knowledge has been learned or not.

Where the challenge appears too great, students could still be given scaffolds to help guide their responses or to help them recall information. This could be in the form of a help-sheet, sentence starters, or perhaps even an “in-between task” which helps to further strengthen their knowledge before they then attempt the independent task. But expectations must remain high – students cannot opt-out of a challenge.

2. Lesson observations

In lesson observations where the focus is on pedagogy (rather than, say, behaviour management), the observer and the observed should begin by considering whether adopting Rosenshine’s Principles into the lesson might have improved it.

This will not always be the case, of course. But by using what research tells us about what works well, we can begin lesson observation feedback from a more objective standpoint, rather than relying on the observer’s subjective preferred style of teaching as “the answer”.

A follow-up observation could then focus on one of Rosenshine’s Principles that had been agreed as a point for future development. The use of Rosenshine’s Principles to develop rather than to assess teaching would be of particular benefit to trainee teachers and NQTs, although even seasoned veterans would find it useful too.

I should note that some leaders might at this point be tempted to take each of the 10 principles and create a tick-box observation sheet, with which they could “judge” lessons. This should be avoided. Rosenshine himself even phrased his findings to avoid categorising teaching as “good” or “bad”. Plus, by creating a blunt instrument in the form of tick-box criteria, teachers, being human, invariably (through a sense of self-defence) find ways to tick the boxes, to the detriment of the lesson that they might otherwise have taught. The principles are a means to an end, not the end in themselves.

3. Whole-school priorities

Whole-school priorities often focus on specific groups, such as underperforming boys or Pupil Premium students. However, while advantageous to the groups identified, the remaining students can be (unintentionally) ignored as a consequence. By concentrating whole-school priorities on Rosenshine’s Principles – for example, the widespread adoption of quizzes at the beginning of the lesson or on teacher-guided practice tasks – all students stand to benefit.

4. CPD and Appraisal

Appraisal, performance management and CPD get a pretty bad reputation (and often deservedly). This does not have to be the case. In the all-too-frequent stories where meaningless or unattainable targets are set, the result is predictable: teaching does not improve and students lose out.

Why not, then, base your CPD, appraisal and performance management targets on developing better practice according to Rosenshine’s Principles? Teaching will improve and students will learn more. What else should we focus on but that?

A useful way to implement this might be for small groups of teachers to focus on a particular principle and to feedback to their group once they have trialled their ideas. The best practice can then be collated and shared across the whole staff, so that this professional development benefits all teaching staff and not just a few individuals.

Conclusion

The research is clear and shows us what works. School leaders at all levels now need to weave these findings into their own operating systems. It might involve reflecting upon some of the more “progressive” approaches that those same leaders have sold to their staff (often having been sold themselves). It might even be a little embarrassing and a tad uncomfortable for some. But, it is vital if we are to make the most difference to our students. And, when we do this, no-one will be left behind.

The Simplest Way To Make Teaching A Level Easier

Teaching A Level

Why are so many teachers anxious about teaching A Level?

It’s well-known that many teachers are frightened of teaching A Level students. Well, not the students themselves, but the subject. It’s true that A Level requires a much greater depth of understanding on the part of the teacher, but most of us have a degree in our subject, or could (to a large extent) teach ourselves the information we’re missing. So what is it about teaching A Level that causes so much anxiety?

In the conversations I’ve had, both online and in-person, it seems like a combination of the amount of effort required to plan lessons and an increasing depth of subject knowledge that is the major barrier for most. After all, which do you think is easier: teaching Y7 about the key features of a synagogue, or teaching Y12 about the cosmological arguments for God’s existence? For most people, the Y7 lesson would take significantly less time and use less cognitive power to plan, resource, teach and assess. Now multiply this additional effort by the number of A Level lessons you would teach in a year and you have a very powerful reason why someone would choose to teach only up to KS4.

I want to explore a potential solution to this problem here. It isn’t “easy”, but it is simple.

What should we prioritise to improve A Level teaching?

One of the major issues facing teachers is a lack of the deep subject-knowledge required to teach at A Level (and to some degree at GCSE too). Most teachers aren’t fresh out of university and therefore haven’t recently studied the subject formally. Add into that the fact that recruitment and retention issues have led to non-specialists replacing subject-specialists and you have a perfect storm. These same teachers, however, are highly effective at teaching KS3 and KS4 classes. They have spent a lot of CPD time on generic pedagogy (metacognition, questioning, behaviour management, etc) and apply it in their practice. What they really need now is subject-specific CPD.

Subject-specific CPD is vital but has been sidelined for a number of years, partly due to the levels of funding schools have been able to spend on it. Individual teachers across the UK find it difficult to make the case that they should be allowed to go on subject-specific CPD courses, when the school could just stick everyone together in the main hall for a fraction of the cost. Headteachers have not chosen this situation, it’s the grim financial reality they’re faced with. But the impact of this, year after year, is now being felt more than ever. Teachers who, before the GCSE and A Level reforms, felt their subject knowledge was strong, now doubt that they can teach students to attain the top grades. It’s all well and good being a master of retrieval strategies, but if you just don’t know the course content, it won’t make a difference. The curriculum has to be prioritised.

But I don’t have time to study A Level topics on top of all my other teaching commitments!” I hear you cry.

I understand the sentiment here, but I think that this is the wrong way to look at it.

Studying A Level topics, or any topic you have to teach, but are unfamiliar with, should be the first thing you do, not the last. If you “know your onions”, everything else becomes easier. This is the lead-domino. The flywheel. The one thing that, if you nail it, renders everything else easy or obsolete. Struggling to create a scheme of work? Finding it difficult to design or mark an assessment? Racking your brain over what kind of activity to use in your classroom? Trying to advise students on wider reading? These can all be made significantly easier if your subject-knowledge is stronger. Investing your time in gaining knowledge will save you so much more time in the long term.

What can schools do to support subject-knowledge development?

So, CPD in schools should (at times) prioritise subject knowledge development over pedagogy. Obviously, some Senior Leaders might need to be persuaded of this view. But it shouldn’t take long. Just look at how hard it is for most schools to recruit new teachers who are capable of and prepared to teach Key Stage 5. As curriculum plans become ever more central in Ofsted-land, schools with a workforce who can be flexible about Key Stages they teach will be at a natural advantage. Again, this might take time to sink in for some. For others, they already understand and are adapting their CPD offering to staff accordingly.

Another point though, that Mary Myatt makes in her book, The Curriculum: Gallimaufry to Coherence (with more eloquence than I do) is that for many teachers, there seems to be an over-reliance on completion of tasks, rather than on the understanding of the subject content. Over-reliance on book-looks, work scrutinies, or whatever your school might call them, has created the unfortunate situation where completed tasks are taken as a proxy for an understanding of knowledge. Time-fillers are used, rather than mind-fillers, with predictable results.

Are they creating something with what they have been taught or are they consumers of worksheets?

Mary Myatt, The Curriculum: Gallimaufry to Coherence

A half-completed task, alongside a deep verbal questioning session, is far more valuable than a comprehension task that, as we all know, can be ‘gamed’ or even just plagiarised by the student. At A Level, this can have devastating consequences. Students might not truly understand how superficial their understanding of a topic is until they’re faced with a challenging question in an exam. But by then, the ship has sailed.

Deeper analysis within lessons could prevent this issue from occurring, but only if subject-knowledge development is prioritised. Schools should be standing behind teachers with encouragement and meaningful support and this could come in a number of ways. Schools could invite experts in to offer subject-specific masterclasses to staff. They could provide protected time for staff to read around their subject, or even give them the opportunity to complete a qualification, if appropriate. All of these approaches would make teaching A Level easier and they are all easy to implement. Schools just need to prioritise funding accordingly (which is another issue!).

With regards to Appraisal systems, targets could be based on staff developing their subject-knowledge, rather than basing them on more immediate attainment figures. This is difficult to “measure”, of course, at least in the short-term. But sometimes we need to stop measuring things so much and instead do what we know will make a difference when it matters most.

Teaching A Level can be a complex business, but we can simplify it. We only have a finite amount of time though. Let’s use it wisely.

Andy

If you have any top tips for teaching A Level then please leave a comment.

You can also find me on Twitter @guruteaching. Say hi!

Creating the Right Climate for Learning

creating the right climate for learning

Creating the Right Climate for Learning

This article was written for SecEd magazine and first published in June 2019.  You can read the original version on the SecEd website here.

Sometimes it does not matter what you have planned, you just know it is going to go badly because of the actions of a noisy minority in the room. Every teacher faces – or has faced this – in their time, but some with more success than others. And it is particularly daunting for those new to the profession.

So what is the secret? How do some teachers manage the behaviour of challenging students with an effortless air, while others flounder just getting them to pick up a pen? In this article, I propose that it is all about creating the right climate for learning.

The right climate for learning means having a culture within the classroom, where the students are less tempted to behave badly and where they value positive behaviour. This can be done via carrot, or stick.

I prefer using a balance of both, but with one simple addition: responsibility.

Students with a sense of responsibility for their actions do not need carrots or sticks. They see the value in behaving well for the long-term. They see the positive influence they can exert on others and they value it for its own sake, not just for a reward, or out of fear of punishment.

This all sounds perfect, right? But how do we get there? Well, the answer is not always straightforward.

Proactive strategies

It is vital to put the work into establishing a positive environment, or ‘climate for learning’. Setting out high expectations, with the reasons behind those expectations being properly explained pays dividends. If the students know, from the off, that good behaviour benefits them personally, they are much less likely to deviate from it.

Play the long game

Remember: Rome was not built in a day. Students often think short-term. They look for quick wins. Teachers should not. They are in it for the long-haul and should be looking to develop positive relationships over time. You cannot expect to be able to fix all behavioural issues on the spot.

Apart from anything else, students often do not want to engage in-the-moment and so any attempt to fix the problem there and then is futile.

The cost in time of this approach for teachers can be expensive in the short-term. However, it usually pays off handsomely, especially when the students begin to see that you are not willing to give up on developing positive relationships. After all, some of them are disruptive because of this lack of positive relationships outside of school in their home lives.

Routines, routines, routines

One of the most important things you can control (and remember, you cannot control everything) is classroom routines. I find that it is really useful to structure lessons in this order, every lesson:

  • Present information.
  • Question the students.
  • Students create something in response to demonstrate understanding.
  • Check students’ understanding.
  • Give feedback.
  • Students respond to feedback,
  • Check responses to feedback.

This structure can be adapted to suit the needs of the class or the nature of the topic, but frequently using such a structure, where students know, each lesson, what is coming next, can help them. Many students crave structure in their daily lives or find it hard to operate outside of one. Nobody loses out with this strategy.

Clarity and consistency and fairness

When implementing your behaviour policy, be it whole school, departmental or your personal code of conduct, be consistent. If students know that when they do A, then B will certainly follow, they will often pause for thought. This can be enough to deter most disruption in most classrooms and maintains a positive climate for learning.

The key, though, is ensuring that the steps used to resolve disruption are seen as fair. This may require an explanation from you when you first begin to teach the group, followed by regular referrals back to these steps.

But, it will keep the students on “your side” if you have to address one of them calling you out as “unfair” when all you have done is maintain the rules that you promised to maintain in everyone’s best interests.

‘Don’t smile until Christmas’

I remember someone telling me this when I first trained back in 2005. I am sure they meant well and it might even work for some teachers, but it was not for me. I still hear it from some teachers today, but I think (hopefully) it is said with a little more nuance.

The point, I think, is to maintain a “professional” exterior. This might involve keeping a straight face more often than you normally would, hence the imperative “don’t smile”.

But this is no mean feat. After all, did we not get into teaching, partly because of the unpredictable nature of the children themselves? It is worth asking more experienced staff for their funniest anecdotes, where they somehow kept a straight face despite the hilarious situation they found themselves in (or even the times when they did not manage it).

Reactive strategies

Sometimes, no matter what conditions you lay down in your classroom, students will break rules, have a bad day, or succumb to the stresses of life. At this point, there are timeless and practical tactics you can employ. Use them repeatedly for maximum impact.

Take the heat out of the situation

Disruptive behaviour has a myriad of origins. Sometimes students come in with an axe to grind and are looking for a confrontation. At other times, they might feel unfairly treated and are not particularly resilient because of other influences beyond their control.

Or, they may want to chat at the back and do not care if it annoys the teacher, as in reality, they are just showing off to their peers.

Any attempt to “confront” these students could end up in a stand-off, that you as a teacher might lose. We all know of teachers who have lost such a stand-off. It can do terrible harm to reputations, destroy the climate for learning and it makes future behaviour issues even more difficult to address, as the authority is lost.

One method to get around the stand-off is to politely and with a smile, invite them for a quick chat in the corridor. This takes them away from the gallery they are playing to. Once you have their full attention you can spend time getting to the root of the issue without them losing face. Be patient and seek to understand them – they will appreciate you for it (eventually).

Contact parents (do it before you think you need to)

Parents do not want to receive a surprise call about their son or daughter’s behaviour. Not only does it give them little chance to respond to the issue thoughtfully, but they will often go on the defensive. This is not useful for the parent, the teacher, or the child, as it just kicks the problem further down the lane, to be dealt with later on (possibly too late). If you see that a particular student might be prone to disruptive behaviour, then a quick five-minute telephone call to a parent/carer might be enough to put the brakes on.

Students invariably behave better when they know parents and teachers are working in tandem and are in frequent contact with each other. “Praise calls” to parents can also be an excellent way to develop that rapport that you may need to call upon later on, when the telephone call might not be so positive.

Identify the key players

In any classroom, there are some individual students who can change the general atmosphere. Identify them and pay particular attention to the way they enter the room at the beginning of the lesson.

This might seem as though I am advocating pandering to certain students, but I am not. Sometimes, it is easier to deal with whole-class behaviour when one or two influential peers are already playing by your rules.

As they enter, quietly ask them about their day, or give them a simple physical task that they cannot help but succeed in, e.g. giving out the books.

If they know you care, they might not see you as part of their “problem” that day. Sometimes, giving them a quick psychological win can act as a catalyst for further positive behaviour, which in turn influences others too.

Over time, this simple act can build positive relationships, that require less and less effort on your part to maintain.

Observe other teachers

It seems obvious when looking for good behaviour managers that you would seek out experienced teachers first. This is indeed useful, as it can give you a glimpse of your future self. However, part of the reason why students can misbehave for NQTs is precisely because you are an NQT. Teachers new to the school do not have that reputation, those relationships, or (sometimes) that sense of gravitas, that years in the classroom brings. As such, you would be much better off watching a fellow NQT manage disruption. After all, they are truly in your shoes. If they can do it, then so can you! And if they struggle, can you work together to develop strategies and support one another?

Conclusion

You should view behaviour management as a career-long professional skill that you will continue to develop as you gain experience. Be fair, consistent and maintain high standards. Over time, this builds positive reputations and ultimately relationships, creating the right climate for learning. It is hard-won, but well worth the battle.

Ideas for Stretch and Challenge in KS3

Ideas for Stretch and Challenge in KS3

This article was written for SecEd magazine and first published in May 2019.  You can read the original version on the SecEd website here.

In my best lessons, all of my students are pushed to their limits. This can be academically, socially or even physically. To aim for anything else is to entirely miss the point of education.

The trouble is though, “teaching to the top” can be difficult to do, both from a planning viewpoint – how can I really challenge my most able students? – and from a workload viewpoint – how can I find the time to consistently plan a range of activities for all abilities, let alone teach them and then give meaningful feedback?

Add into the mix that at key stage 3 particularly, students are more often taught in mixed attainment classes; this alone can make differentiation seem like an impossible task. Even more so if you were to succumb to the all-too-common pressure that teachers place on themselves to do their absolute best for every child, regardless of the cost to their own wellbeing.

Then there is the total lack of imagination shown by many resource-creators in the education sector, who have tied their activities purely to exam board criteria. This is pointless. I do not just want my students to be good at exams. It leaves them with an impoverished curriculum and often just an arbitrary set of facts. Instead, I want them to flourish in my subject and become experts who answer with deep knowledge, flair and creativity, irrespective of which exam they eventually sit.

However, because there are hundreds of fantastic ways to differentiate, simply figuring out what is “best” can leave me with analysis-paralysis for hours, days or even weeks!

Well, no more. Having tried and tested many techniques myself, I have (for now) settled on a few that strike the balance between pushing students to their limits as well as being sustainable in the sense of the workload they create. They combine rigour, depth and that controversial and emotionally loaded word “engagement”, allowing students to push boundaries in a positive way.

There is no “best” way overall, but there are ways that consistently work well. So, below is my curated list of excellent ways to stretch and challenge at key stage 3.

Activity 1: Scenario questions

Everyone loves a story. So when your task involves the students as decision-makers in a scenario, they immerse themselves in much more creative answers than they might otherwise come up with.

They are able to see alternative points of view a little more clearly and this helps them to add weight to analysis and evaluation in their arguments. More importantly than that, the students begin to see the world from beyond their own perspective, something that we as adults forget to do now and again.

Scenario tasks work best when students have already learnt something about the topic. In religious studies, this could be an ethical theory on how to behave. In Geography, it could be the effects of movement in tectonic plates. In Physics it could be how different forces act on a given object. In Art, it could be the rules of a given style, such as Cubism. In Maths, it could be diameter, area and volume.

Once students have learnt the basics, they are then given a scenario which requires them to make decisions – where not only do they apply their knowledge, but they also have to justify why they chose a certain option over a different one.

Combining this application with evaluation can really test the abilities of students. They need to not only show their understanding, but to become more confident decision-makers and advocates for a certain argument or approach in the process.

Possible scenarios might include:

  • Create a bird’s-eye-view layout of a theme park, using pre-selected 2D shapes of a given size, placed inside a strict perimeter.
  • Design and build a bridge out of straws strong enough to carry the weight of an egg.
  • After reading profiles of 10 characters, each with positive and negative attributes, decide who to throw out of the lifeboat to prevent it sinking!
  • Write a one-minute piece of music to inspire a seven-year-old child to dance.
  • Write an emergency news bulletin in response to a natural disaster, giving important practical advice on what local people should do.

Students then have to present their designs and decisions, justifying not only why they chose them, but also why they did not choose the alternatives. They should then be encouraged to critique their own and each other’s decisions, which will add further depth to their understanding of the judgements made.

Activity 2: The ultimate question – what difference does it make?

When I am coming towards the end of a topic, I usually pose the following question to my students: “What difference does it make?”

An alternative version is “why should you care?” (although this can come across a little sarcastic!). I ask this question to give students the opportunity to see where this topic sits in the broader context.

For example, in Religious Studies, you might be teaching the topic of “pilgrimage”. Students would learn how people of different faiths go on pilgrimage and what the similarities and differences are between their experiences. The question “what difference does it make?” prompts the students to go beyond describing and explaining pilgrimages, to evaluating their purpose.

The question gets them to explore not why people go on pilgrimage, but how it can change them. It can also provoke other questions like “Why might pilgrimages be seen as pointless in the 21st century?” or “Can you be a proper Christian/Jew/Muslim if you have never been on a pilgrimage?”

All in all, this one question can be an excellent way to get your students to evaluate the topic and to go beyond what they have studied so far.

Activity 3: Essay rebuilding

Many of my higher attaining students find writing essays no trouble at all, once they have been given the information they need.

However, they often create formulaic answers, which do not really show the depth of their knowledge or show the versatility of their arguing skills that are often evident in verbal questioning during the lesson.

I have a solution to this. It demonstrates on paper just how nimble students’ arguments are and how well they really know their stuff.

  1. Take a pre-written, non-perfect answer (pinch one from last year’s students or write one yourself if you must).
  2. Cut it into strips. The more strips there are, the greater the challenge.
  3. Hand over the randomly sorted strips to a team of students, who then have to re-assemble the essay in the correct order.
  4. Students stick the essay pieces in order, onto a larger sheet of paper (A3 is good, but the bigger, the better).
  5. Finally, they annotate around the edges of the essay, evaluating and judging the quality of the individual pieces (e.g. “strong argument because…”, or “this needs evidence to prove xxx here”, etc).
  6. Once they have finished, invite another student or a team of students to critique the newly rebuilt essay. They can then add their own evaluative judgements on the order of the pieces and on any feedback that the first team missed.
  7. To add further challenge, teams of students can be pitted against each other to re-assemble the same essay. The quality of debate held by the students – who do not want to lose the race or get it wrong – is phenomenal.
  8. Finally, students present their decisions to the class, explaining their rationales and suggesting how the essay should really have been written.

Now over to you…

In the end, stretch and challenge is about showing students that there is more that they can do. Even the simple act of showing them that more is possible is often enough for students to permit themselves to try and go that little bit further.

So why not try one of these simple strategies today? Go on, stretch and challenge yourself. You know you can.

Effective Classroom Questioning Strategies

Effective Classroom Questioning Strategies

Effective Classroom Questioning Strategies

This article was written for SecEd magazine and first published in January 2019.  You can read the original version on the SecEd website here.  

Earlier in my career, I used to ask all of the wrong questions and when I asked the right ones, I asked them in the wrong order. The result was predictably bleak. My students still learned, but at times it took far longer than it should have done and in some cases, very little learning happened at all. This was down to me (most of the time).

I’m sure that most of us have felt guilty for letting our students down when we’ve taught a lesson that just didn’t do what we wanted it to do. But rather than spend time navel-gazing, it’s important that we instead address one of the most fundamental parts of our teaching. No, not the worksheets, or the PowerPoints, or even the homework. It’s our questioning. It’s easy to think that we’ve got our craft down to an art. But is questioning more of a science?

In my own experience, asking the right questions at the right time, to the right people, in the right way, is often what transforms a lesson from mediocre to truly excellent. Not only that, but there’s a way to do it well and with consistency, without your students tiring of formulaic lessons.

What’s the purpose of asking questions?

There are many reasons why we ask questions in class, whether it’s to check the level of understanding, stretch answers further, or to help develop confidence in our quieter students. A key component to effective questioning, though, is identifying why you are asking the question in the first place.

This is where “planning for questions” comes in. When I plan a topic, I always begin by deciding what my students need to know by the end and what skills I want them to be able to demonstrate. Only then can I decide which questions are more important than others. For example, in Religious Studies, I teach the nature of religious experience and how far it proves the existence of an afterlife. In order to teach this, I need students to be able to answer questions such as:

  • What defines a religious experience?
  • What are the different types of religious experience?
  • What common features do different types of religious experiences have?
  • How do religious experiences manifest themselves in different religions and cultures?
  • Why do people believe that religious experiences are convincing as evidence for an afterlife?
  • Why do people believe that religious experiences are not convincing as evidence for an afterlife?
  • How convincing is religious experience as an explanation for an afterlife?
  • How far does a belief in religious experiences impact the lives of believers?

Each question is designed to build upon the knowledge and skills that were learnt and developed in response to the previous question. By the end, I can be much more certain that students have an excellent understanding of the topic. Moreover, if a student was unable to answer a specific question, I’d easily be able to identify the reason for it, just by working through the previous questions, to see where they began to struggle.

What About Higher-Order vs Lower-Order Questions?

In the past, it was argued by some that higher-order questions, which require students to analyse and evaluate, were more important than lower-order questions, which simply sought to develop a basic understanding.

This is wrong.

Without first establishing a basic level of understanding of the main points, it’s pointless to ask the higher-order questions. After all, you can’t evaluate the persuasiveness of religious experience, without first knowing the key features, which you then need to critically analyse. All students need to master those basics, regardless of their prior attainment or levels of ability, before they move on to more complex analysis and evaluation. Knowledge comes first: you can’t apply skills in a vacuum.

That being said, higher-order questions can make a huge difference to students who would otherwise give simplistic and short answers. The question “Was the Treaty of Versailles significant in causing the Second World War?” elicits a much simpler response than “How significant was the Treaty of Versailles in causing the Second World War?” Students who would give a brief yes/no response to the first question would have to justify and evaluate their reasoning in answer to the second question.

What difference does effective questioning make?

Effective questioning, if viewed as part of a feedback dialogue between the teacher and the students, adds as much as the equivalent of eight months worth of teaching to students receiving it. This is according to the Education Endowment Foundation’s Toolkit and you can read more on it here. In my own experience as a classroom teacher, effective questioning makes a huge difference. Not only to the quality of teaching and learning, but it also cuts out activities that don’t contribute to the true purpose of the lesson or topic being learnt. Consequently, effective questioning reduces unnecessary workload – the Holy Grail in teaching today!

How should the questions be asked?

When asking questions, it’s important that you give your students time to think before answering. One way to do this is to give them some key questions in advance, either on the board or on a worksheet. Whether you do this or not, you should always wait for an answer, even if it means creating an uncomfortable silence for a few extra seconds. We can often be guilty of jumping in too soon if a student doesn’t answer. But this can be detrimental as it allows students to effectively opt-out of answering if they know you’ll do it for them. Instead, if you really have to, try rephrasing the question and ask something specific about part of the answer you want them to give. By narrowing your question in this way, a confused student might be able to give a more confident answer. From there, you can then ask a follow-up question which builds on what they have already said.

The follow-up question could also be asked to a different student, to keep the rest of the class on their toes. The popular strategy of “pose, pause, pounce, bounce” is a really simple and powerful questioning tool, which you and your students will find increasingly effective the more often you use it. First, pose the question to the class, then pause, allowing the class to think of their response. After this you “pounce” and ask a specific student for their answer. You can then “bounce” to another student to answer a follow-up question.

What about those students who still don’t answer?

Some students just don’t want to answer questions in front of their peers. More often than not it’s a confidence issue. It’s easy to just let these students live an easy life. However, for these students to thrive over the long-term, it’s vital that you keep asking them questions, rather than leaving them out. Ask them simple questions to get them used to speaking in front of others. The lower the stakes, the more they will feel they can answer without the crippling fear of getting it wrong in front of others. Over time (this could be weeks or even months), gradually ask them more challenging questions as their confidence grows.

How much time should you spend on questioning in your lessons?

As much time as possible!

I’ve found over the years, that students perform much better when they’ve spent a significant amount of time answering and debating the answers to questions during the lesson. Having a range of different answers helps them to develop their own understanding, particularly of complex topics and gives them models to base their own answers on. It’s also an incredible way to build engagement in the lesson, as students feel as though they have some ownership over the direction of the lesson and are able to “try out” their answers before committing them to paper in high-stakes assessments, where it really counts.

Effective classroom questioning strategies are the lifeblood of many of the most engaging and thought-provoking lessons I’ve taught and observed. If I focus on nothing else but this, my students will receive an enriching curriculum that stimulates and challenges them. Oh, and they’ll also be well-prepared for the rigour of their exams (after all, that’s quite important too).

Any questions?

I hope so!

Becoming A Research-Informed Teacher

research-informed teaching

Becoming Research-Informed

I’m writing this after returning from the hugely inspiring ResearchED Durham 2019. Brimming with ideas about how I can be more research-informed and improve my teaching, I’m dying to see what quick wins I can implement and what cultural changes I can affect, at least in my own classroom. But the trouble is, my enthusiasm isn’t enough. Nor is the random assortment of notes that I took while listening to the speakers. I know fine well that by Monday, some of that enthusiasm will have waned and that I’ll have forgotten the context of those pithy quotes I wrote down, in the hope that they would make me look and sound clever.

Come to think of it, I probably haven’t improved that much at all.

So, what was the point in attending?

For me, it’s about developing good habits. In this case, I mean that I’m trying to develop the habit of using research-informed strategies to influence my teaching. Attending a ResearchED event has been on my to-do list for a long time now. But as a one-off instance of CPD it isn’t enough. To really make the difference to my practice, I’ve started to read more academically about what works and to apply some of that research in my daily teaching activities. Attending ResearchED is only one piece of the puzzle (albeit an invaluable one).

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It’s easy to see why many of us teachers feel overwhelmed at the number of edu-books currently out there as “must-reads” and I’ll even be recommending a couple in a moment, so brace yourself. (Also, you can read a few of them on Kindle Unlimited for 30 days for free!) With all those titles telling us that our go-to strategies are either a waste of time or even counter-productive, you could be forgiven for putting off that “change” that might just be needed. After all, it’s comforting to think that after a few years of hard slog in the classroom, that you’ve managed to “nail it”.

But that’s not how we grow.

Sometimes we need to think back to why we wanted to go into teaching in the first place. We wanted to make a difference. We loved our subject and wanted to share our knowledge of it. We wanted to guide the next generation to success. And we still do!

So, with that in mind, I want to offer you a tiny little challenge. It only takes a couple of minutes.

How to begin…

Here’s something I do, once a week, to add something to my arsenal of effective teaching strategies and to remove strategies that have now been proven to be less effective.

I want you to read something. It could be a blogpost, a few pages of a book (here’s a few you can try), or an article from a magazine. Take one thing from whatever you read and implement it during your first lesson on Monday morning (or as close to that as you can).

That’s all.

If we want to become the research-informed and the most effective teachers that we can be, while maintaining our sanity and work-life balance, then small steps are needed. Just implement one thing. Otherwise, the hurdle will seem too high. The trouble with educational research, as @EmmaAlderson pointed out at ResearchED Durham, is that so few teachers engage with it. Many even see it as a threat, or worse, just a fad.

It’s something I’ve been doing for the past few months and over time it hasn’t only improved my teaching (verified by my students’ attainment data). I’ve also become more engaged and reflective about my teaching. It’s given me a much-needed boost in job satisfaction and has allowed me to ride this year’s teaching rollercoaster with a sense of joy, rather than fear.

Give it a go. Choose joy.

Here’s a couple of really accessible ones you can dip into to get started:

Tom Sherrington’s practical guide to using Rosenshine’s Principles is probably the easiest book to read, to improve your teaching. In the book, he gives simple advice on what works well, according to Rosenshine’s research and how we can implement it.

Peps Mccrea’s book is short and sweet, but packs a punch. You could easily devour this in one sitting and come away with a sack full of ideas to help your students learn more effectively.

Your journey to becoming research-informed begins here. Let me know how you get on.

Andy

P.S. You can find me on Twitter @guruteaching. Say hi!

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